||Text of BMP
||Inject produced water underground to prevent surface subsidence
||"Injection for Hydrological Purposes: Surface Subsidence: Land subsidence control is achieved by injecting water into an underground formation to ...
||Produced water may be used for domestic use
||When economic, use desalination technology to purify produced water for community fresh water usage.
||Technology for better surface separation of produced fluids
||"The Epcon compact flotation unit (CFU) consists of a vertical vessel acting as a three-phase water/oil/gas separator (Epcon Brochure 2006). ...
||Technology to better remove dispersed and dissolved hydrocarbons from produced water
||"The CTour Process System enhances the traditional hydrocyclone technology. It uses gas condensate to extract hydrocarbons from water. The condensate ...
||Use capacitive deionization to filter produced water
||"Capacitive deionization is based on an electrostatic process operating at low voltages and pressures. Produced water is pumped through an electrode ...
||Use coalescence to remove organic compounds from water
||Since "oil rises at a rate dependent on the droplet diameter and the fluid viscosity. Smaller diameter droplets rise more slowly. One way of ...
||Use downhole gas/water separation technology to reduce water production
||"Downhole Gas/Water Separators: Downhole gas/water separation (DGWS) technology is installed in the bottom of a gas well. It separates gas and water ...
||Use downhole oil/water separation technology to reduce water production
||"Downhole Oil/Water Separators: Downhole oil/water separation (DOWS or DHOWS) technology is installed in the bottom of an oil well. It separates oil ...
||Use Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) for better produced water management
||"Reinjection into an underground formation represents the most commonly used approach for onshore management of produced water," and is used "to ...
||Use ion exchange to filter produced water
||"Ion Exchange: In the case of produced water, the goal is to preferentially remove sodium. For that application, resins are chosen that are ...
||Use membrane processes to filter produced water
||Membrane processes such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis can be used to filter produced ...
||Use physical separators to remove organic compounds from produced water
||API gravity separators, advanced separators, hydrocyclones, filtration, and centrifuges increasingly remove more and more organic particles.
||Use produced water for agricultural uses
||"Produced water [from oil and gas wells] meeting the water quality requirements of agricultural users offers the potential to supplement and replace ...
||Use produced water for dust control on lease roads
||"Dust Control: Some oil and gas regulatory agencies allow operators to spray produced water on dirt roads to control the dust."
||Use produced water for fire control
||Fire Control: Where "limited surface and ground water resources are available for firefighting," use produced water.
||Use produced water for hydraulic fracturing
||"Oil Field Use: Hydraulic Fracturing: Local water supplies may not be adequate to meet the demand for frac water. Produced water or "flow-back water" ...
||Use produced water for power plant cooling
||"Cooling Water and Other Power Production Uses: Since conventional surface and ground water sources are no longer sufficient to meet increasing power ...
||Use produced water to augment surface stream flows
||"Injection for Hydrological Purposes: Stream Flow Augmentation: Where discharges are permitted, treated produced water meeting applicable discharge ...
||Use thermal distillation to purify produced water
||AltelaRain is currently pilot testing a new form of thermal distillation, "a process that has been used for decades to desalinate seawater for ...
||Use underground unjection for produced water storage
||A commonly used method to manage produced water is "injecting [it] into an underground formation where it can be withdrawn later for reuse."